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Concept 1: Why would humans want to inhabit Mars?
I can give reasons for why Mars exploration is important.
This is the state of the world...
The world is becoming overcrowded and Earth’s resources are running out.
...so what will come next?
You and a team of Scientists are tasked with planning how humans could inhabit Mars.
Assignment: Create an Informative Poster
Posters must be done individually, and in your own words. This poster can be on paper or online, and roughly the size of an A4 page.
Poster Part 1: Comparing Planetary Conditions
In order to establish a human settlement on Mars, it is necessary to transform the environment so that it is livable. One of the questions scientists are currently pursuing is whether it is possible to "terraform" the Martian surface; that is, can we engineer the planet's surface to make it more "Earth-like?"
Your mission is to familiarise yourself with the environmental conditions on both planets. Investigate the environmental conditions on Mars and compare them to those on Earth.
Using the websites listed below, as well as any others you find, present a table like this in your informative poster. 'Notes' section is OPTIONAL.
Poster Part 2: What makes Mars a good candidate planet for Humans to inhabit?
Research the question above. When researching this question, consider the following:
- Location in the solar system.
- Access to water on Mars.
NASA's Curiosity Rover
Video: Getting a Rover Ready for Launch - Engineers put the rover through thousands of hours of testing. They did drop tests; pull tests; drive tests; load tests, and many other tests to get Curiosity ready for launch.
Video: Curiosity Rover Animation - Animation shows how the Curiosity rover was launched from Earth, travelled through space, and landed on Mars. It then goes on to show how the rover explores the surface of Mars.
Video: Spacecraft Power - There are no gas stations or power outlets in space. This video explains the type of power system the Curiosity rover uses called "radioisotope power".
Concept 2: What do Humans need to Survive on Mars?
I can describe the process and give the equation for cellular respiration.
Humans need Energy in the Form of ATP
All living things need energy (in a form called ATP) to be able to carry out the 7 life processes below:
Movement - Whole organism or parts of it move.
Respiration - Releases energy from its food through the process of cellular respiration in cells.
Sensitivity - Senses and responds to stimuli.
Growth - Grows and gets bigger.
Reproduction - Reproduces and produces offspring.
Excretion - Excretes and gets rid of waste products.
Nutrition - Needs nutrition to get energy.
This forms the acronym:
Energy in the form of ATP is made via Respiration
The energy humans need to survive on Mars is made through a process called cellular respiration.
Humans need glucose (a type of sugar) and oxygen, so that their cells can undergo cellular respiration and produce ATP as a main product, and carbon dioxide and water as by-products.
The respiration equation:
Getting Oxygen and Glucose
How do humans get the oxygen they need for respiration?
We breathe in oxygen from our surroundings. As we breathe in, oxygen enters our nose and travels into our lungs where gas exchange happens. Oxygen diffuses from the air in the lungs and into the blood, which is is pumped around the body by the heart.
How do humans get the glucose they need for respiration?
Glucose is a type of sugar that comes from the food we eat, such as rice and pasta. We mechanically break food down in our mouths and stomachs, and further break it down chemically in our stomachs and intestines. Glucose is absorbed by the small intestines, into the blood.
What are the THREE organ systems needed to get oxygen and glucose to cells?
1) The respiratory system brings oxygen from the air, into the lungs. Oxygen enters the blood.
2) The digestive system chemically and mechanically breaks down food so that it is small enough to be absorbed by the small intestine. The small intestine brings glucose and other nutrients into the blood.
3) The circulatory system is made up of the blood, blood vessels, and the heart. The heart pumps blood (containing oxygen and glucose) to all the cells of the body, so the cells can carry out cellular respiration.
Concept 3: Where does Oxygen and Glucose come from?
I can describe the process and give the equation for photosynthesis.
I can explain how respiration and photosynthesis are both necessary for the survival of plants and humans.
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants capture energy from sunlight and turn it into glucose (food), and oxygen.
Therefore, plants provide the reactants that all living things need for cellular respiration.
The photosynthesis equation:
The Link between Photosynthesis and Respiration
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are connected through an important relationship. This relationship enables life to survive as we know it.
The word equations show that the reactants and products of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis are opposites:
Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide
Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen
Photosynthesis makes the glucose that is used in cellular respiration to make ATP. The glucose is then turned back into carbon dioxide, which is used in photosynthesis.
Oxygen on Mars
Concept 4: What conditions do plants need to grow on Mars?
I can describe the different steps of a fair test.
I can describe and identify the dependent, independent, and control variables in experiments.
I can carry out a fair test exploring what conditions a a plant needs to grow.
Plants can provide us with both the oxygen and glucose we need to carry out cellular respiration and survive on Mars. Both how exactly can we grow them. What conditions are required for plants to grow?
To maximise the amount of photosynthesis (and therefore growth) a plant can carry out, we need to ensure plants have sufficient amounts of water, carbon dioxide, and light.
For this concept, you will learn how to design and carry out a fair test to explore what conditions a plant needs to grow.
The Scientific Method
Aim: A statement on what you are trying to find out.
Method: A list of simple, clear, and numbered steps of what you will do – and how it will be repeated by another person.
Results: A section containing raw and/or data, tables and graphs collected.
Conclusion: A few sentences on what your results tell you – linked back to the aim.
Discussion: A paragraph that brings in science ideas to explain your results, improvements, how you managed to control the other variables and why (to ensure accuracy and reliability).
Types of Variables
Concept 5: How are we going to get to Mars?
I can describe what forces are and how the affect objects.
I can name the forces acting on moving objects and represent their size and direction with diagrams.
Now that we have an idea of what we will need to survive on mars, we need to plan how we are going to get to Mars.
The main difficulty in the journey is leaving the surface of the Earth with all the equipment and supplies to start a settlement on Mars.
Can you name any forces involved in the launch?
What is a Force?
A force (F) is a push or a pull. It is measured using a unit called Newton (N). Forces can change:
The shape of an object.
The speed of an object.
The direction of an object.
What are some types of Forces?
There are several types of forces, and here are a few:
Thrust is the force that forcefully pushes an object from itself.
Jet fuel is combusted by an engine to thrust a plane forward.
Energy is used by muscles to thrust a sprinter forward.
Friction is the force that always opposes an object's motion, as surfaces rub against each other.
Weight force (W) is the force pulling objects towards the centre of the Earth, due to gravity.
Support force is the upward force on an object that is in contact with another stable object.
How are Forces Drawn?
All forces acting on an object can be shown on a free body diagram. The size and direction of the force is shown by arrows.
The size of each force may also be shown in its units, ‘Newton’ or ‘N’.
Rules for drawing a Free Body Diagram
The object or ‘body’ is usually shown as a box or a dot.
The forces are shown as thin arrows pointing AWAY from the centre of the box or dot.
All arrows should be labelled to show the type and size of force.
Balanced vs Unbalanced Forces
Compare these two diagrams in terms of direction and size of the net force.
Reminder: Forces acting in opposite directions subtract or cancel each other out.
When two forces acting on an object are equal in size but act in opposite directions, we say that they are balanced forces.
When there is a change in the shape, movement, or direction of something, we know the forces acting on it are unbalanced (unequal).
One of the instruments used to measure forces is the force meter. The unit of force is called Newton (N).
To calculate weight force due to gravity, multiply the mass of the object by acceleration due to gravity, which is 10m/s.
Concept 6: We're Going to Need a Better Rocket!
I can define chemical reactions.
I can represent chemical reactions as word equations.
I can explain how to make hydrogen gas and test for it.
Chemical Reactions as Word Equations
Chemical reactions occur when different substances react together to create new substances.
Just like baking a cake, different 'ingredients' or 'reactants' react to form the final 'product'.
When writing chemical equations, arrows mean 'to produce/make' and + signs indicate two or more reactants or products.
Hydrogen Gas can be Used as Fuel
Making and Testing Hydrogen Gas
You will need: test tube, test tube rack, splint, 1cm piece of magnesium, bottle of hydrochloric acid, Bunsen burner, heatproof mat.
Put your safety goggles on!
Add approximately 1mL of hydrochloric acid into your test tube
Place the 1cm piece of magnesium into the test tube (make sure it is in the liquid), IMMEDIATELY cover the test tube with your thumb
Wait a minute until you feel the the pressure building up under your thumb
You are making hydrogen gas and are trapping it in the test tube.
Light the splint
Remove your thumb and place the tip of the burning splint into the mouth of the test tube
Choosing Materials for your Rocket
It is important to explore what materials are most suitable for rocket designs, taking into consideration properties such as:
Density - the mass of a substance per volume.
Malleability - ability to bend or be shaped easily.
Reactivity - tendency of a material to undergo chemical change.
Conductivity - how easily electricity can pass through the material.
Research the differences in properties of metals and non-metals like plastics and ceramics. Theorise the ideal material(s) for your rocket ship.