7. Mountains and Volcanoes

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Lesson 3: Hei Mahi (Do Now)

Do Now on page 28 of your Knowledge Book:

1. The crust of Papatūānuku is broken up into pieces called:

2. What causes these pieces to move?

3. What are the names of the pieces of crust Aotearoa sit on?

Lesson 3: Exit Task

In your Knowledge Book page 31

How do mountains form?

How do volcanoes form?

How are mountains and volcanoes created?

Mountains and volcanoes are created at convergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates are coming together. 

If the two plates are carrying continental crust, the two crusts fold and squish together. This makes the material clump and pile up on top of each other, creating mountains. 

If one of the plates is denser than the other (such as one is oceanic crust vs continental crust), the denser plate will sink into the mantle. 

The heat from the mantle then melts the crust, forcing it to become warmer and less dense and therefore rise up to the surface. This process is called subduction and it creates volcanoes. 

The reason Aotearoa has so many volcanoes is because we sit on a plate boundary. 

In Te Ika-a-Maui (North Island), the Pacific plate has oceanic crust and is therefore sinking underneath continental crust on the Australian plate. 

The Pacific plate then melts from the heat in the mantle and rises to the surface through weaknesses in the Australian plate. This molten rock then erupt onto the surface, creating most of the large volcanoes, warm spring, and calderas that we see in throughout Te Ika-a-Maui. 

In Waipounamou, the two plates are jammed together and both have continental crust, creating the range of mountains known as the Southern Alps. 

Tasks & Homework

Task 1: Knowledge Book pages 11-13
Knowledge Questions, Using Knowledge.


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Functions of Lab Equipment

Vocab Quiz

You can use this to practice your vocabulary.

Skills Vocabulary 3